How to build software for a computer 50 times faster than anything in the world. Researchers are working to create new and adapt existing software technologies to operate at exascale by overcoming challenges found in several key areas, such as resiliency, data reduction, software libraries and the management of memory, power and computational resources. Source 7i.
I've always felt that half the battle with computer speed is not the hardware but how well the software is written. For instance you could calculate x with an intense calculation or a simple one giving the same result. I'll be excited to see what they come up with to save on hardware resources. Maybe it can be applied to software for personal computing.