New ground has been broken in our understanding of the complex functioning of the brain. The research demonstrates that brain cells, known as astrocytes, which play fundamental roles in nearly all aspects of brain function, could be adjusted by neurons in response to injury and disease. Source
New microscope controls brain activity of live animals
For the first time, researchers have developed a microscope capable of observing -- and manipulating -- neural activity in the brains of live animals at the scale of a single cell with millisecond precision. The device, which uses lasers to create holographic images within the brain, is envisioned as a “Rosetta Stone” to crack the code on how brains work. Ref. Source 2v.
The brain performs feats of math to make sense of the world
Researchers have found that the brain is quite good at rapidly and subconsciously calculating the likelihood of various events, and remain flexible enough to account for new information. They traced these abilities to a region of the brain located just behind our eyes known as the orbitofrontal cortex. Ref. Source 9p.